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Common Kidney Diseases: Symptoms and Causes

Kidneys play a crucial role in filtering waste from the blood, balancing bodily fluids, regulating blood pressure, and more. However, they can be affected by various diseases that can significantly impact their function and overall health. This blog explores common kidney diseases such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), kidney stones, and acute kidney injury (AKI), along with their symptoms and causes.

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Symptoms of CKD

Chronic Kidney Disease is a progressive condition where the kidneys gradually lose function over time. It often goes unnoticed in the early stages because symptoms may be mild or nonexistent. As the disease progresses, symptoms become more apparent, including:

  • Fatigue and weakness: Due to reduced red blood cell production (anemia) and toxin buildup.

  • Swelling (edema): In the feet, ankles, hands, or face caused by fluid retention.

  • Changes in urination: Frequency, color, and amount of urine may change.

  • Shortness of breath: Resulting from fluid buildup in the lungs.

  • High blood pressure: Caused by the kidneys' role in regulating blood pressure.

  • Muscle cramps and twitches: Due to imbalances in electrolytes.

  • Persistent itching: A result of toxin accumulation in the body.

  • Nausea and vomiting: Especially in the advanced stages.

Causes of CKD

Several factors can lead to CKD, including:

  • Diabetes: High blood sugar levels damage the kidneys over time.

  • High blood pressure: Causes damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys.

  • Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the kidney's filtering units (glomeruli).

  • Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic disorder causing cysts to grow in the kidneys.

  • Recurrent kidney infections: Can cause long-term damage to the kidneys.

  • Prolonged obstruction of the urinary tract: Due to conditions such as kidney stones, enlarged prostate, or some cancers.

Kidney Stones

Symptoms of Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are hard deposits of minerals and salts that form inside the kidneys. They can be extremely painful and cause several symptoms, including:

  • Severe pain: In the side, back, below the ribs, or lower abdomen.

  • Pain during urination: As the stone moves through the urinary tract.

  • Pink, red, or brown urine: Indicating the presence of blood.

  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine: Due to infection or concentration of substances.

  • Nausea and vomiting: Often accompanying severe pain.

  • Frequent urination: Or the urge to urinate, especially if the stone is near the bladder.

Causes of Kidney Stones

Kidney stones form when urine contains more crystal-forming substances than the fluid can dilute. Factors that increase the risk include:

  • Dehydration: Insufficient water intake concentrates urine, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together.

  • Diet: High in protein, salt, and sugar can increase the risk of some types of kidney stones.

  • Obesity: Increases the risk of kidney stones due to changes in metabolism.

  • Certain supplements and medications: Such as high doses of vitamin D, calcium-based antacids, and certain medications.

  • Family or personal history: A history of kidney stones increases the likelihood of developing them.

  • Medical conditions: Such as hyperparathyroidism, gout, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)

Symptoms of AKI

Acute Kidney Injury is a sudden episode of kidney failure or damage that happens within a few hours or days. It causes a buildup of waste products in the blood and can be life-threatening. Symptoms include:

  • Reduced urine output: Although occasionally, urine output remains normal.

  • Swelling in legs, ankles, or around the eyes: Due to fluid retention.

  • Fatigue and weakness: Caused by reduced kidney function and anemia.

  • Shortness of breath: Due to fluid buildup in the lungs.

  • Confusion: Resulting from the buildup of toxins affecting brain function.

  • Nausea and vomiting: Due to the buildup of waste products.

  • Chest pain or pressure: From fluid buildup around the heart.

Causes of AKI

Acute Kidney Injury can result from various conditions that reduce blood flow to the kidneys, damage the kidneys directly, or obstruct urine flow. Common causes include:

  • Severe dehydration: Leading to a significant drop in blood pressure and blood flow to the kidneys.

  • Severe infections: Such as sepsis, which can cause inflammation and damage to the kidneys.

  • Major surgery: Particularly those involving the heart or blood vessels, can reduce blood flow to the kidneys.

  • Medications: Certain drugs like NSAIDs, antibiotics, and chemotherapy agents can be toxic to the kidneys.

  • Obstruction: Due to kidney stones, enlarged prostate, or tumors blocking the urinary tract.

  • Trauma or injury: Direct damage to the kidneys from an accident or surgery.


Understanding the symptoms and causes of common kidney diseases is crucial for early detection and effective management. Chronic Kidney Disease, kidney stones, and Acute Kidney Injury each have distinct characteristics and risk factors. By maintaining a healthy lifestyle, staying hydrated, and seeking regular medical check-ups, individuals can help protect their kidney health and prevent these conditions.

Additional Resources

For more information on kidney diseases and maintaining kidney health, consider exploring the following resources:

These resources provide valuable information and support for those looking to understand and manage kidney diseases effectively.



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